This comparative study examines the issue of combating crime with criminalistic methods. It focuses on the role and significance of criminalistics in the system of substantive and criminal procedural law as a science standing at the forefront of the fight against crime. The criminals and their offenses as well as the investigation of criminal cases and judicial proceedings are the objects of the analysis. The correlation between the criminal sciences and general trends in the development of a number of European and BRICS countries (with China as an example) has been emphasized. Joint research into the most pressing problems of combating crime is believed to improve the efficiency of law enforcement activities. From this perspective, there is a need to develop a universal framework of categories and concepts which will help to create a unified forensic area in Europe and the BRICS countries.