Civil Liability for Marine Oil Pollution Damage in the BRICS Countries
Until the 20th century, most countries around the world focused on developing the benefits of maritime transport and paid little attention to oil pollution from ships. The truth of the matter is that the development of marine transportation was a leading cause of marine pollution. Today, marine oil pollution is considered a dangerous source of contamination of the marine environment, and the oil pollution from ships is the source that draws the greatest concern. This concern clearly is felt by the BRICS countries, whose members, with vast seas adjacent to their landmasses, are keenly interested in preserving and protecting the marine environment against pollution, including marine pollution caused by oil from ships. The BRICS member states are countries with large economies and significant influence on regional and global issues. In recent years they have played a vital role in the world economy in terms of total production, destinations for investment capital and potential consumer markets. Therefore, the development and improvement of the laws of these countries relating to civil liability for marine pollution damage have significance for protecting the marine environment. This paper explores the legal regimes relating to civil liability for marine pollution damage at the international level and in the BRICS member states. It compares the differences in the domestic legislation of the BRICS countries pertaining to civil liability for marine pollution damage and concludes with recommendations for better implementation.