This article explores and compares the changes in the criminal legislation of Russia and China. The author will first examine the history of the development of the criminal legislation of the two countries, identifying their common and distinguishing features in the process. The author will then compare the basic provisions and structure of the criminal codes of Russia and China as objects of comparative legal research. This article further analyzes the scale, direction and dynamics of changes in the provisions contained in the General and Special parts of the criminal codes of the two countries, in detail. It is concluded that the scale and speed of changes in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, is far greater compared to the changes in the Criminal Code of the People’s Republic of China, based on various indicators. The author gives general recommendations to the Russian legislator as far as the consideration of scientific developments goes.